Additional Markings.


Bindi is exacktly the same - not that there is a lot that you could do differently.

It can, to some extent, survive being made into a very short dash of some orientation but don't make it too long unless you confuse it with a laanv.


Tippee is like the top of a sihari or a bihari so make sure that it hasn't got a kannaa anywhere near it (it shoudn't anyway).

Again, this is tall for the sake of speed and legibility.

You can join it onto a sihari if you are writing somthing that has an 'in' sound in it and that makes it fast again, without making it ambiguous.


Adhak is big because there is plenty of space there and you don't have to extend the bar for the next letter - just write it where the adhak finishes.


Paer rarraa is just written as a continuation of the letter it is joined to.

It doesn't matter if it has a bigger loop - making it look like the loopy part of a kakkaa because there is nothing else to confusie it with.


Paer vavvaa doesn't have to be joined if it isn't convenient to do so.

Just draw a backwards '3'.


Paer hahha is just a loop and as the only other thing down there to confuse it with would be an aunkard (which is deliberately straight), there is no confusion.

If you are writing a paer hahha on a rdaardaa - ੜ੍ਹ - you can just continue with the right hand dash of the ੜ (you can do the same with ਨ੍ਹ as well).


Noon - ਨੂੰ crops up all over the place and it requires quite an investment to draw it all of the time.

With this in mind (and the fact that you don't get to see ਨੁੰ all that often), it has been simplified to the shape on the left.

You can see where each part of ਨੂੰ is represented and it is fairly easy to recognise.


Singh ਸਿੰਘ is another one that occurs repeatedly.

if you look closely, you can see the horizontal line and left part of before it turns into a sihari.

Next comes the with the tippee drawn after it.

whilst this is out of order, it is instantly recognisable once you know what you are looking at.

Copyright ©2007-2023 Paul Alan Grosse.